We are currently recruiting a Postdoctoral Researcher in the field of ‘Environment and Health’ for 20 months to contribute to an interdisciplinary ESRC funded study entitled ‘Lifecourse of Place: how environments throughout life can support healthy ageing’. In this role, you will work under the supervision of Professor Jamie Pearce and Professor Niamh Shortt (School of GeoSciences), as well as collaborate with colleagues in Psychology in the School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences (Professor Ian Deary and Dr Simon Cox) and Edinburgh College of Art (Professor Catharine Ward Thompson).
The successful candidate will play a lead role in utilising environmental datasets and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 to explore how different environments over the lifecourse influence healthy ageing. The focus of this role will be to conduct longitudinal data analysis, contribute to final publications and help to accelerate the impact of the research. You will be a self-motivated individual with the ability to take responsibility for key components of the research plan. There are opportunities to shape the details of the research agenda.
Based at the School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh you will join the Centre for Research on Environment, Society and Health (CRESH).
CRESH co-Director Jamie Pearce who is co-editing a new journal focused on the role of place in understanding human health and wellbeing along with Susan Elliott who is a Professor at the University of Waterloo, Canada.The journal, named Wellbeing, Space & Society, is an interdisciplinary journal concerned with the difference that space, place and location make to wellbeing. It welcomes submissions that are theoretically informed, empirically supported, of interest to an international readership, address a problem of interest to society, and illustrate the links (potential or theorized) between (aspects of) society and space and wellbeing. We publish papers from a range of social science disciplines – geography, sociology, social psychology, social epidemiology, economics, anthropology, political science, amongst others.
The editors are particularly interested in the policy implications of the research, including work informed by policy analysis. Methodological plurality and innovation are encouraged; interpretation of wellbeing in this context may be subjective or objective, eudonic or hedonic, and may also be at the individual and/or community levels. But they are particularly interested in the wellbeing of places – how is that conceptualized, theorized, operationalised and translated?
Neighbourhood characteristics are linked to mental health in older age, but the magnitude of effects might differ across countries. Using data from 16 different countries, our paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology indicated that country-level social, political, economic and environmental characteristics may explain differences in how neighbourhood affects mental health.
Depression, local area and macro-level context
Depression is a common mental disorder with substantial disability and economic burden worldwide. More than 10% of adults aged 50 years and older present depressive symptoms with an even greater proportion of the population suffering in older age groups. Older adults spend more time in their neighbourhood, so that social and physical features of the residential area become increasingly important for them.
Signs of neighbourhood disorder, such as crime, vandalism and exposure to rubbish, are thought to indicate problems in the residential environment, by elevating the level of stress and fear among residents. On the other hand, positive aspects of neighbourhoods such as social cohesion – which is often characterised as a sense of community, help and support among neighbours – have the potential to buffer the effects of stress and contribute to healthy ageing. Both neighbourhood disorder and social cohesion has been linked to mental health problems.
Neighbourhoods are situated within macro-level environments capturing larger geographic areas such as local authorities, counties or even countries (Figure 1). Policies, as well as social, economic and environmental characteristics of macro environments can affect citizens’ life and health, and also shape the physical and social characteristics of local communities, where people live and age. It is important, as both local and macro-level environments are modifiable, presenting opportunities for improving population mental health and contributing to healthy ageing.
Neighbourhoods influence mental health among older adults
We investigated the associations between neighbourhood disorder, lack of social cohesion and depression among adults aged 50 and over. Longitudinal information on perceived neighbourhood characteristics and depressive symptoms across 16 high-income countries were utilised, including 32000 older adults. Results showed that living in an area with significant neighbourhood disorder increased the chance of developing depression (Figure 2), and so did lack of social cohesion (Figure 3). If people were already in retirement, effects became stronger.
Neighbourhood effects differ across countries
As the magnitude of the associations varied across the 16 included countries, we further explored country-level differences.
Amongst other, we found that in countries with higher population density, lack of social cohesion was more detrimental for mental health. Particularly in the oldest age groups, where limited mobility is more likely present, neighbours can be an important source of social and emotional support. In countries where people live closer to each other, not having proper social ties to neighbours can lead to social isolation and higher risk of developing mental health problems.
Also, in countries with higher pension spending, the adverse effect of neighbourhood disorder on depression was buffered for individuals already in retirement. It is plausible that by providing material resources, more generous welfare states equip older people to deal with stressors arising from less safe and deteriorated residential neighbourhoods.
Macro-level context and policy recommendations
Understanding how larger context can influence mental health inequalities across neighbourhoods has the potential to inform policy, and provide more tailored recommendations. For example, tackling crime and vandalism in countries with lower pension spending would be particularly beneficial for mental health, as older people has less material resources to protect themselves from the negative effects of neighbourhood disorder. Supporting social ties and improving social capital in densely populated areas may stronger contribute to healthy ageing and lead to better mental health among older adult.
We are currently seeking to recruit two Postdoctoral Researchers (Health & Environment) to join the CRESH team at the University of Edinburgh and contribute to two studies on the geography of unhealthy commodities.
The first position is part of the UK Prevention Research Partnership (UKPRP) Consortium – SPECTRUM (Shaping Public hEalth poliCies To Reduce ineqUalities and harm). SPECTRUM has an ambitious programme of research, knowledge exchange and public engagement focusing on the commercial determinants of health relating to tobacco, alcohol and food.
The second role will contribute to an ESRC funded project ‘Change in alcohol and tobacco availability, population health and the lived experience’ which will measure change in the availability of alcohol and tobacco in Scottish neighbourhoods over time and explore how this change relates to health outcomes and how residents experience the availability of alcohol and tobacco in their neighbourhoods.
Closing date for both positions is 16th October 2019.
We are delighted to announce that we have been awarded funding from the ESRC for a project exploring tobacco and alcohol environments in Scotland. The project ‘Change in alcohol and tobacco availability, population health and the lived experience’ will be funded for 3 years, beginning December 2019 for a total of £761, 470. The project will be led by Professor Niamh Shortt with co-investigators from the University of Edinburgh (Professor Jamie Pearceand Dr Tom Clemens), Glasgow Caledonian University (Professor Carol Emslie) and the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow (Professor Richard Mitchell).
This research will measure change in the availability of alcohol and tobacco in Scottish neighbourhoods over time and explore how this change relates to health outcomes and how residents experience the availability of alcohol and tobacco in their neighbourhoods. The findings will be important because smoking and alcohol consumption are leading causes of illness and death. In Scotland smoking causes one in every 5 deaths and one in 20 deaths is related to alcohol. This harm is not equally shared; those on the lowest incomes suffer the greatest harm. These illnesses and deaths are preventable. The World Health Organisation recommends that nations prioritise interventions that reduce the supply of alcohol and tobacco.
Why might neighbourhood supply of alcohol and tobacco matter? Research suggests that when there are a lot of outlets in a neighbourhood this impacts upon consumption in three ways. 1. The outlets may be more competitive and drive prices down to attract customers. 2. Oversupply may normalise the products when they are sold alongside everyday commodities, such as bread and milk. 3. Tobacco and alcohol may simply be easier to buy in areas where there are more outlets.
In order to explore the relationship between supply, behaviour and harm we need data on the location of every outlet in Scotland selling tobacco and/or alcohol. Ideally, to be able to say something about whether the relationship may be causal, we need this data over time. We have already collected data on the specific location of every outlet selling tobacco and licensed to sell alcohol over multiple time periods (2012 and 2016 (nationwide alcohol and tobacco – see paper here) and 2008 (alcohol in four cities – see paper here)). As part of this project we will collect updated data for 2019/20. This will allow us to measure this change over time. Using an approach called trajectory modelling we will group neighbourhoods that have had a similar degree of change; some neighbourhoods may have lost, or gained, local shops or pubs, whereas some may not have changed at all. We will then identify features of these neighbourhoods that may be driving this change, for example the age profile of the population or poverty levels. This will help policy makers understand the drivers of change in our neighbourhoods.
To measure the relationship between changing supply and harm we will link these trajectories, and our measures of availability at each time point, to alcohol and tobacco health outcomes (behaviour, illness and death). We will use statistical models to see whether areas experiencing an increase or decrease in outlets have seen a corresponding increase or decrease in these outcomes. This will allow us to get a better understanding of whether an over supply of alcohol and tobacco is related to smoking and alcohol consumption and harm. These findings will provide important evidence related to the provision of such commodities in our neighbourhoods.
Although these statistics are important to report we also need to understand why an oversupply of alcohol and tobacco may influence behaviour and harm. Whilst the literature suggests the pathways listed above, we know little about the experiences of individuals living in neighbourhoods with contrasting availability. We don’t understand the individual experience of any of these pathways. Professor Carol Emslie will lead a qualitative work package and researchrs will meet with groups of individuals, in neighbourhoods of contrasting trajectories, to talk to them about the supply of alcohol and tobacco. We will explore their experiences of neighbourhood and assess how their perceived notions of their neighbourhood availability contrast with our statistical measures. Finally, we will meet with residents, retailers and policy stake-holders to explore potential interventions related to supply. Policies at this level require public, retailer and political support. We will discuss the priorities held by various groups, present our quantitative results and gauge attitudes towards potential interventions.
Throughout the project will be committed to knowledge exchange, public events and speaking with non academic partners. If you wish to know more about this research, or would like one of the researchers to come to your organisation to provide you initial findings (once the project is under way) then contact the Principal Investigator here: firstname.lastname@example.org
By Laura Macdonald from the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow @theSPHSU
Our neighbourhood environments change and evolve often; some changes are minor, while others involve major transformation. Change can take various forms; green space created or removed, existing housing or amenities demolished, new housing estates built, new motorways created, or existing transport infrastructure modified or extended. Change may affect neighbourhood residents’ physical or mental health, or health-related behaviours, to their benefit or to their detriment. To study how change in our neighbourhoods might affect our health we need robust information but data showing how our neighbourhoods are changing, at a fine geographic scale, for the whole of Scotland, did not exist – until now! This is why we created an atlas showing what’s changed, and an interactive mapping application which allows you to explore the data yourself. Continue reading An atlas of change in Scotland’s built environment 2016-17→
Our new study looking at exposure of children to tobacco retailing, recently published in the journal Tobacco Control, shows that an average 10-to-11-year-old child in Scotland comes within 10m of a shop selling tobacco 43 times a week. This rises to 149 times a week for children living in the poorest areas—six times more than the 23 encounters a week experienced by children living in affluent areas. This demonstrates an unexpectedly large inequality in the amount of times children are exposed to tobacco sales. Unexpected because in the same study we showed that tobacco outlets are 2.6 times more common around the homes of children living in the most deprived areas than the least. Yet we found a six-fold difference in exposure because we used GPS trackers (fully consented and ethics-approved, of course) to follow exactly where children moved through their environments. We found that most exposure came from convenience stores (41%) and newsagents (15%) on school days, with peaks before and after school hours. At weekends, we found most exposure came from supermarkets (14%), with a peak around midday.
The difference in the number of times children in poor areas are in or near to places selling tobacco is most concerning when you consider the pathways leading people to start smoking. Most adult smokers start when they are teenagers, and the availability of tobacco products is a key factor in in why people start to smoke and why they find it hard to give-up. Our findings raise important questions about when and where tobacco products are sold and the messaging this is sending to children.
How where we grow, live and age affects our health