Job Opportunity at CRESH

We are looking to appoint a Postdoctoral Researcher in the field of ‘Environment and Health for a period of 4 years to contribute a UK Prevention Research Partnership (UKPRP) Consortium – SPECTRUM (Shaping Public hEalth poliCies To Reduce ineqUalities and harm) https://www.ed.ac.uk/spectrum.   SPECTRUM has an ambitious programme of research, knowledge exchange and public engagement focusing on the commercial determinants of health relating to tobacco, alcohol and food.

The successful candidate will play a lead role in a programme of work aiming to identify how the local environment can be shaped to change behaviour, prevent harm and reduce inequalities. The aim is to examine the intended and unintended impacts of (and interventions in) the local commercial environment on the consumption of unhealthy commodities. The focus of this role will be to conduct spatial and quantitative analyses, contribute to final publications and help to accelerate the impact of the research.

For further details – including how to apply – can be found here.

What next for tobacco control in Scotland?

New research from the CRESH team using data from 124,566 shopping baskets purchased in convenience stores across Scotland has found that the purchase price of tobacco is lower in more disadvantaged neighbourhoods, largely because of the higher sales of the cheapest brands in these areas.

Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable ill-health, hospitalisations and deaths in Scotland. Approximately 19% of adults in Scotland smoke, this rises to 32% in our most deprived fifth of neighbourhoods and falls to 9% in the most affluent neighbourhoods. As Scotland moves towards a ‘Tobacco Endgame’ the Scottish Government have a target to reduce smoking prevalence to less than 5% by 2034. A recent review of smoking projections by CRUK however suggests that Scotland may miss this target by 16 years in the poorest neighbourhoods. It is important that we continue to explore all potential determinants of smoking, particularly those that drive smoking in our most deprived communities.

We know that tobacco price is one of the most important determinants of smoking behaviour and that many smokers are price sensitive. Whilst it may appear that all tobacco products are becoming increasingly expensive, research suggests that the average tobacco price in the UK has remained relatively unchanged in real terms over the past 20 years in spite of numerous tax increases. A practice, known as ‘undershifting’, has seen tobacco companies limit price increases on the cheapest brands and instead increase the price of the most expensive brands by larger margins, thus absorbing the tax increases on the cheapest cigarettes allowing them to remain cheap (Hiscock et al. 2018).  As a result, the price of the lowest priced cigarette brands has remained relatively steady and the tobacco market as a whole has become increasingly stratified by price between the cheapest ‘sub value’ , ’value’, ‘mid price’ and high priced ‘premium’ brands. We wanted to understand these differentials in price a little better, so we carried out some research that was published recently in Tobacco Control. We explored whether the price paid for tobacco (both cigarettes and roll your own tobacco) was different in different types of neighbourhoods. We compared areas by deprivation, by the density of tobacco outlets and by rurality.

We analysed tobacco purchase data provided to us by The Retail Data Partnership. We looked at more than 124,000 purchases in 274 stores across Scotland in April 2018. For cigarettes the average price paid for a pack of 20 was £8.49, ranging from £7.20 to £13.25. For roll your own tobacco (RYO) 30g the average price paid was £12.14, with prices ranging from £9.80 to £15.99. We found that the price paid for tobacco did vary by neighbourhood type. In neighbourhoods with the lowest average household income the average purchase was 50p less for a pack of 20 cigarettes, and 34p less for roll your own tobacco compared with the most affluent neighbourhoods.

We then asked whether this was driven by individual brands being cheaper in more deprived areas, or whether cheaper, sub-value, brands were just more popular in such places. We found little evidence that individual brands were priced differently. Although the cheaper brands are the most popular in all neighbourhoods and across Scotland, accounting for 52% of sales, there’s a big difference in popularity between more and less deprived areas, In the most deprived areas these brands account for 58%  of sales, but in most affluent areas it was just 39% (See Figure 1 below). So, it is the dominance of cheaper brands in more deprived areas that drives the 50p difference in average price paid per pack between deprived and affluent areas. Remember this matters because the tobacco companies work to subdue tax-based price rises on the cheapest brands.

We also explored whether the density of tobacco retailers and/or rurality had an impact on tobacco price. We found little evidence of a density effect, but we did find that the individual brands analysed were significantly cheaper in rural areas.

So what does this mean and what can we take from this research? It is clear from the CRUK review that we need to work harder in order to reach the 2034 target of less than 5% of the population smoking. Price is a lever that we can pull, but to date this has been largely done through tax increases. This research shows us that the cheapest brands are the most popular in all neighbourhood types, but much more so in our most deprived neighbourhoods where smoking rates are highest. We found that the price paid for tobacco is lower in more deprived areas compared to more affluent areas. Our results confirm that the dominance of cheaper, so called ‘sub-value’ brands in more deprived areas, is a driving force behind the difference in price paid for tobacco between neighbourhoods. This highlights the importance of cheaper tobacco products to the consumer and the market.  Cheap tobacco may help tobacco companies to retain price sensitive consumers who live in the most deprived areas, which, in turn, contributes to health inequalities. In addition to increases to the duty rates on tobacco, more radical policy responses are likely to be required. These include a combination of minimum unit pricing (MUP) and a price cap at the upper end. The MUP would raise the cost of cheaper cigarettes and the price cap at the upper end would prevent the more expensive brands being used to ‘protect’ the cheaper ones from tax rises.

With growing international interest in the ‘Tobacco Endgame’, policymakers should identify measures that counter industry tactics that enable the continued sales of cheap tobacco. We published this paper in the first week of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. These are clearly strange times and we should rightly focus on the public health impacts of the global pandemic, and in particular the vast health inequalities that are arising. We must not however forget that the public health challenges we were faced with before this pandemic remain. Tobacco, and other unhealthy commodities, require our attention and the inequalities that arise from them remain a matter of social justice.

You can find the paper here:

Shortt, N., Tunstall, H., Mitchell, R., Coombes, E., Jones, A., Reid, G. & Pearce, J. Using point-of-sale data to examine tobacco pricing across neighbourhoods in Scotland. Tobacco Control, Published Online First: 19 March 2020. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontro

References

Hiscock R, Branston JR, McNeill A, et al. Tobacco industry strategies undermine government tax policy: evidence from commercial data. Tob Control 2018;27:488 LP – 497. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053891

Come and join the CRESH team!

We are currently recruiting a Postdoctoral Researcher in the field of ‘Environment and Health’ for 20 months to contribute to an interdisciplinary ESRC funded study entitled ‘Lifecourse of Place: how environments throughout life can support healthy ageing’. In this role, you will work under the supervision of Professor Jamie Pearce and Professor Niamh Shortt (School of GeoSciences), as well as collaborate with colleagues in Psychology in the School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences (Professor Ian Deary and Dr Simon Cox) and Edinburgh College of Art (Professor Catharine Ward Thompson).

The successful candidate will play a lead role in utilising environmental datasets and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 to explore how different environments over the lifecourse influence healthy ageing. The focus of this role will be to conduct longitudinal data analysis, contribute to final publications and help to accelerate the impact of the research. You will be a self-motivated individual with the ability to take responsibility for key components of the research plan. There are opportunities to shape the details of the research agenda.

Based at the School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh you will join the Centre for Research on Environment, Society and Health (CRESH).

For further details click here.

Informal enquiries to Prof Jamie Pearce (jamie.pearce@ed.ac.uk), Prof Niamh Shortt (niamh.shortt@ed.ac.uk)

New journal: Wellbeing, Space & Society

CRESH co-Director Jamie Pearce who is co-editing a new journal focused on the role of place in understanding human health and wellbeing along with Susan Elliott who is a Professor at the University of Waterloo, Canada.The journal, named Wellbeing, Space & Society, is an interdisciplinary journal concerned with the difference that space, place and location make to wellbeing. It welcomes submissions that are theoretically informed, empirically supported, of interest to an international readership, address a problem of interest to society, and illustrate the links (potential or theorized) between (aspects of) society and space and wellbeing. We publish papers from a range of social science disciplines – geography, sociology, social psychology, social epidemiology, economics, anthropology, political science, amongst others.

The editors are particularly interested in the policy implications of the research, including work informed by policy analysis. Methodological plurality and innovation are encouraged; interpretation of wellbeing in this context may be subjective or objective, eudonic or hedonic, and may also be at the individual and/or community levels. But they are particularly interested in the wellbeing of places – how is that conceptualized, theorized, operationalised and translated?

For more information please contact Jamie Pearce

Neighbourhood problems lead to depression, but effects vary across countries

Neighbourhood characteristics are linked to mental health in older age, but the magnitude of effects might differ across countries. Using data from 16 different countries, our paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology indicated that country-level social, political, economic and environmental characteristics may explain differences in how neighbourhood affects mental health.

Depression, local area and macro-level context

Depression is a common mental disorder with substantial disability and economic burden worldwide. More than 10% of adults aged 50 years and older present depressive symptoms with an even greater proportion of the population suffering in older age groups. Older adults spend more time in their neighbourhood, so that social and physical features of the residential area become increasingly important for them.

Signs of neighbourhood disorder, such as crime, vandalism and exposure to rubbish, are thought to indicate problems in the residential environment, by elevating the level of stress and fear among residents. On the other hand, positive aspects of neighbourhoods such as social cohesion – which is often characterised as a sense of community, help and support among neighbours – have the potential to buffer the effects of stress and contribute to healthy ageing. Both neighbourhood disorder and social cohesion has been linked to mental health problems.

Neighbourhoods are situated within macro-level environments capturing larger geographic areas such as local authorities, counties or even countries (Figure 1). Policies, as well as social, economic and environmental characteristics of macro environments can affect citizens’ life and health, and also shape the physical and social characteristics of local communities, where people live and age. It is important, as both local and macro-level environments are modifiable, presenting opportunities for improving population mental health and contributing to healthy ageing.

Figure 1: Local and macro-level determinants of depression

Neighbourhoods influence mental health among older adults

We investigated the associations between neighbourhood disorder, lack of social cohesion and depression among adults aged 50 and over. Longitudinal information on perceived neighbourhood characteristics and depressive symptoms across 16 high-income countries were utilised, including 32000 older adults. Results showed that living in an area with significant neighbourhood disorder increased the chance of developing depression (Figure 2), and so did lack of social cohesion (Figure 3). If people were already in retirement, effects became stronger.

Figure 2: Neighbourhood disorder impacting depression across 16 high-income countries. Odds Ratios <1.0 indicate decreased odds of depression by exposure to neighbourhood disorder; Odds Ratios >1.0 express increased odds. Small black diamonds are country-specific estimates, larger empty diamonds are pooled effects across group of countries. Abbreviations: ELSA, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; HRS, Health and Retirement Study; SHARE, Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe.

Neighbourhood effects differ across countries

As the magnitude of the associations varied across the 16 included countries, we further explored country-level differences.

Figure 3: Lack of social cohesion impacting depression across 16 high-income countries. Odds Ratios <1.0 indicate decreased odds of depression by lack of social cohesion; Odds Ratios >1.0 express increased odds. Small black diamonds are country-specific estimates, larger empty diamonds are pooled effects across group of countries. Abbreviations: ELSA, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; HRS, Health and Retirement Study; SHARE, Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe.

Amongst other, we found that in countries with higher population density, lack of social cohesion was more detrimental for mental health. Particularly in the oldest age groups, where limited mobility is more likely present, neighbours can be an important source of social and emotional support. In countries where people live closer to each other, not having proper social ties to neighbours can lead to social isolation and higher risk of developing mental health problems.

Also, in countries with higher pension spending, the adverse effect of neighbourhood disorder on depression was buffered for individuals already in retirement. It is plausible that by providing material resources, more generous welfare states equip older people to deal with stressors arising from less safe and deteriorated residential neighbourhoods.

Macro-level context and policy recommendations

Understanding how larger context can influence mental health inequalities across neighbourhoods has the potential to inform policy, and provide more tailored recommendations. For example, tackling crime and vandalism in countries with lower pension spending would be particularly beneficial for mental health, as older people has less material resources to protect themselves from the negative effects of neighbourhood disorder. Supporting social ties and improving social capital in densely populated areas may stronger contribute to healthy ageing and lead to better mental health among older adult.

By Gergő Baranyi, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh

Two Postdoctoral Researchers (Health & Environment)

We are currently seeking to recruit two Postdoctoral Researchers (Health & Environment) to join the CRESH team at the University of Edinburgh and contribute to two studies on the geography of unhealthy commodities.

The first position is part of the UK Prevention Research Partnership (UKPRP) Consortium – SPECTRUM (Shaping Public hEalth poliCies To Reduce ineqUalities and harm). SPECTRUM has an ambitious programme of research, knowledge exchange and public engagement focusing on the commercial determinants of health relating to tobacco, alcohol and food.

The second role will contribute to an ESRC funded project ‘Change in alcohol and tobacco availability, population health and the lived experience’ which will measure change in the availability of alcohol and tobacco in Scottish neighbourhoods over time and explore how this change relates to health outcomes and how residents experience the availability of alcohol and tobacco in their neighbourhoods.

Closing date for both positions is 16th October 2019.

Please get in touch with Professor Jamie Pearce or Professor Niamh Shortt to discuss either role: Jamie.Pearce@ed.ac.uk Niamh.Shortt@ed.ac.uk

https://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/BVI122/postdoctoral-researcher-health-and-environment-tobacco-and-alcohol

https://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/BVI153/postdoctoral-researcher-health-and-environment

New ESRC funded study on Tobacco and Alcohol

We are delighted to announce that we have been awarded funding from the ESRC for a project exploring tobacco and alcohol environments in Scotland. The project ‘Change in alcohol and tobacco availability, population health and the lived experience’ will be funded for 3 years, beginning December 2019 for a total of £761, 470. The project will be led by Professor Niamh Shortt with co-investigators from the University of Edinburgh (Professor Jamie Pearceand Dr Tom Clemens), Glasgow Caledonian University (Professor Carol Emslie) and the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow (Professor Richard Mitchell).

This research will measure change in the availability of alcohol and tobacco in Scottish neighbourhoods over time and explore how this change relates to health outcomes and how residents experience the availability of alcohol and tobacco in their neighbourhoods. The findings will be important because smoking and alcohol consumption are leading causes of illness and death. In Scotland smoking causes one in every 5 deaths and one in 20 deaths is related to alcohol. This harm is not equally shared; those on the lowest incomes suffer the greatest harm. These illnesses and deaths are preventable. The World Health Organisation recommends that nations prioritise interventions that reduce the supply of alcohol and tobacco.

Why might neighbourhood supply of alcohol and tobacco matter? Research suggests that when there are a lot of outlets in a neighbourhood this impacts upon consumption in three ways. 1. The outlets may be more competitive and drive prices down to attract customers. 2. Oversupply may normalise the products when they are sold alongside everyday commodities, such as bread and milk. 3. Tobacco and alcohol may simply be easier to buy in areas where there are more outlets.

In order to explore the relationship between supply, behaviour and harm we need data on the location of every outlet in Scotland selling tobacco and/or alcohol. Ideally, to be able to say something about whether the relationship may be causal, we need this data over time. We have already collected data on the specific location of every outlet selling tobacco and licensed to sell alcohol over multiple time periods (2012 and 2016 (nationwide alcohol and tobacco – see paper here) and 2008 (alcohol in four cities – see paper here)). As part of this project we will collect updated data for 2019/20. This will allow us to measure this change over time. Using an approach called trajectory modelling we will group neighbourhoods that have had a similar degree of change; some neighbourhoods may have lost, or gained, local shops or pubs, whereas some may not have changed at all. We will then identify features of these neighbourhoods that may be driving this change, for example the age profile of the population or poverty levels. This will help policy makers understand the drivers of change in our neighbourhoods.

To measure the relationship between changing supply and harm we will link these trajectories, and our measures of availability at each time point, to alcohol and tobacco health outcomes (behaviour, illness and death). We will use statistical models to see whether areas experiencing an increase or decrease in outlets have seen a corresponding increase or decrease in these outcomes. This will allow us to get a better understanding of whether an over supply of alcohol and tobacco is related to smoking and alcohol consumption and harm. These findings will provide important evidence related to the provision of such commodities in our neighbourhoods.

Although these statistics are important to report we also need to understand why an oversupply of alcohol and tobacco may influence behaviour and harm. Whilst the literature suggests the pathways listed above, we know little about the experiences of individuals living in neighbourhoods with contrasting availability. We don’t understand the individual experience of any of these pathways. Professor Carol Emslie will lead a qualitative work package and researchrs will meet with groups of individuals, in neighbourhoods of contrasting trajectories, to talk to them about the supply of alcohol and tobacco. We will explore their experiences of neighbourhood and assess how their perceived notions of their neighbourhood availability contrast with our statistical measures. Finally, we will meet with residents, retailers and policy stake-holders to explore potential interventions related to supply. Policies at this level require public, retailer and political support. We will discuss the priorities held by various groups, present our quantitative results and gauge attitudes towards potential interventions.

Throughout the project will be committed to knowledge exchange, public events and speaking with non academic partners. If you wish to know more about this research, or would like one of the researchers to come to your organisation to provide you initial findings (once the project is under way) then contact the Principal Investigator here: niamh.shortt@ed.ac.uk

An atlas of change in Scotland’s built environment 2016-17

By Laura Macdonald from the MRC/CSO  Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow @theSPHSU

Our neighbourhood environments change and evolve often; some changes are minor, while others involve major transformation. Change can take various forms; green space created or removed, existing housing or amenities demolished, new housing estates built, new motorways created, or existing transport infrastructure modified or extended. Change may affect neighbourhood residents’ physical or mental health, or health-related behaviours, to their benefit or to their detriment. To study how change in our neighbourhoods might affect our health we need robust information but data showing how our neighbourhoods are changing, at a fine geographic scale, for the whole of Scotland, did not exist – until now! This is why we created an atlas showing what’s changed, and an interactive mapping application which allows you to explore the data yourself. Continue reading An atlas of change in Scotland’s built environment 2016-17

Children in deprived areas encounter shops selling tobacco six times more frequently than those in well-off areas

By Dr Fiona Caryl.

Our new study  looking at exposure of children to tobacco retailing, recently published in the journal Tobacco Control, shows that an average 10-to-11-year-old child in Scotland comes within 10m of a shop selling tobacco 43 times a week. This rises to 149 times a week for children living in the poorest areas—six times more than the 23 encounters a week experienced by children living in affluent areas. This demonstrates an unexpectedly large inequality in the amount of times children are exposed to tobacco sales. Unexpected because in the same study we showed that tobacco outlets are 2.6 times more common around the homes of children living in the most deprived areas than the least. Yet we found a six-fold difference in exposure because we used GPS trackers (fully consented and ethics-approved, of course) to follow exactly where children moved through their environments. We found that most exposure came from convenience stores (41%) and newsagents (15%) on school days, with peaks before and after school hours. At weekends, we found most exposure came from supermarkets (14%), with a peak around midday.

Why does this matter? This may not sound like a lot of exposure, and we might ask if a child is really exposed to tobacco just by being in or near a shop selling tobacco, especially after the ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco displays. But then we don’t actually know how many micro-exposures it takes to make a child think that smoking is a normal, acceptable and widespread behaviour rather than a major cause of premature death. Research into advertising suggests that the mere-exposure to indirect and incidental stimuli can influence attitudesnon-consciously when they’re repeatedly presented. The ban on POS tobacco displays has reduced children’s susceptibility to smoking, but children still notice tobacco on sale. In fact, recent research shows that the conspicuousness and prominence of tobacco in shops varies considerably between areas of high and low deprivation. And the difference in prominence has been increasing since the POS ban.

The difference in the number of times children in poor areas are in or near to places selling tobacco is most concerning when you consider the pathways leading people to start smoking. Most adult smokers start when they are teenagers, and the availability of tobacco products is a key factor in in why people start to smoke and why they find it hard to give-up. Our findings raise important questions about when and where tobacco products are sold and the messaging this is sending to children.

Liveable urban environments: an opportunity or threat to reducing health inequities?

Creating ‘liveable’ urban environments is seen as an important way of improving the health and wellbeing of the residents in our towns and cities. Yet it is not clear whether the focus amongst planners and other policymakers on fashioning liveability is an opportunity – or threat – to reducing health inequities. On the one hand improving the resources and infrastructure in local communities might benefit everyone but particularly those who are most dependent on what is close by. On the other hand, it is possible that if liveability interventions are poorly or unevenly implemented, or inappropriate to the particular needs of the local population, then health inequities may widen. This issue was the focus of our new research recently published in Social Science & Medicine where we found evidence that some aspects of liveability have reduced inequities, whereas other aspects have not led to a reduction, or in some cases even increased, health inequities.

The notion of liveability has been around for a long while and is underpinned by the United Nation’s New Urban Agenda. The aim is to ensure equitable delivery of sustainable urban development – including local infrastructure and services, and housing amongst many other urban features – and to improve the living social and physical conditions for urban dwellers, including their health. Given these important and laudable goals it is perhaps surprising that so few studies have looked at what effects liveability has on health inequities. Health inequities continue to increase across many countries, including the UK and Australia; identifying what works in the long-term to reduce health inequities remains a policy priority for many national governments and international agencies.

In our new work we examined the international evidence to see when and where urban liveability might pose an opportunity or threat to reducing health inequities. We looked across a series of urban liveability features (education; employment; food, alcohol, and tobacco; green space; housing; transport; and walkability) and asked whether intervening on these aspects of place can serve to widen or narrow inequities.

Our findings show that the urban liveability agenda offers opportunities to help address health inequities but the effects differ from place to place. It was also clear that we need to keep in mind that urban liveability is just one part of a much broader urban system; whilst improving aspects of urban liveability can improve the health for some populations in a local area, it may not be the case for others. In some cases, the health benefits of urban liveability are restricted to specific (and sometimes more prosperous) communities. In fact, in more extreme cases urban liveability interventions can result in local people being pushed out of their community (e.g. through associated hikes in rental prices), with negative implications for their health and wellbeing.

We believe that the findings from this research include some important messages for policymakers and urban planners tasked with identifying ways to improve people’s health and reduce health inequities. Designing our neighbourhoods to become more liveable offers some significant opportunities to enhance health. However, it is also apparent liveability interventions need to be implemented in ways that meet the needs of all population groups living in the area, including the most vulnerable. As researchers, it is important that we continue to monitor the impact of liveability interventions on inequities and seek a better understanding of how these issue relate to the wider urban and social systems affecting our health.

Hannah Badland & Jamie Pearce

Mental health problems are common among prisoners in low-income and middle-income countries

In a major international review, we found very high rates of psychiatric and substance use disorders among prisoners in low-income and middle-income countries. The results from the systematic review and meta-analysis published in Lancet Global Health showed that the prevalence of psychosis, depression, and drug and alcohol use disorders is much higher in this marginalised population in comparison to the community, pointing to unmet needs and calling for action in research and policy.

Mental health and substance use problems are common among individuals involved in the criminal justice system. Incarcerated men and women often come from disadvantaged socioeconomic and family background, and frequently have a life history of victimisation and substance use, making them more vulnerable to mental health problems. While in prison, they often remain undiagnosed and untreated. Prisoners with unmet mental health needs have higher mortality, especially by suicide, and greater risk of recidivism and reoffending after release in the community, leading to multiple imprisonments.

Although 70% of the worldwide prison population are residing in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), almost all scientific evidence is coming from studies conducted in high-income countries. It is an important limitation as recommendations from a mostly Western context might not be applicable or generalizable to poorly resourced settings. Prison conditions in LMICs are usually very harsh, characterised by overcrowding, poor nutrition, and sanitation, and limited or complete lack of access to basic health care. To provide evidence for future research and policy making, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on prison prevalence studies in LMICs.

After screening 6000 titles and abstracts from 17 electronic global databases, we identified 23 relevant publications based on 14,527 prisoners from 13 different LMICs. Considering a one year time interval, approximately 6.2% of the prisoners had psychosis, 16.0% major depression, 3.8% alcohol use disorders, and 5.1% drug use disorders. To illustrate the immense burden of mental health problems, we quantified the difference between the prevalence among prisoners in each sample and in the sex-matched general populations of the respective countries. Prevalence rates among prisoners were 16 times higher for psychosis, 6 times higher for major depression and illicit drug use disorder prevalence, and twice as high for alcohol use disorders, indicating a significant public health concern and large unmet health care needs in this marginalised group. Moreover, rates in prison populations of LMICs might be even higher than in high-income countries.

Based on our findings, we presented several implications and recommendations for research and policy.

  1. While a review from 2012 on prison mental health in high-income countries identified over 100 samples, we were able to find only 23 studies from a much larger and diverse group of countries. There is a need further evidence from LMICs to adequately plan interventions for prisoners with mental disorders, especially from regions underrepresented in research such as Central and East Asia, and Central America.
  2. Because correctional facilities in LMICs often lack basic health care, the implementation of cost-effective interventions and scalable treatments for individuals with mental health problems is crucial.
  3. Imprisonment could present an opportunity to treat people with mental health and substance use problems who otherwise would be difficult to reach for health services. National governments in LMICs should move the responsibility for prison health care from prison administrations to the national health services.
  4. Since human right violations, and physical and psychological abuse are more common in resource-poor correctional settings, increasing mental health literacy among staff and protecting the rights and health of people with mental illnesses should be a priority for penal justice policies.

The invited comment on our paper gives a valuable and very practical recommendation on how to improve mental health services in correctional facilities. Training prison health workers by mental health professionals using the WHO’s Intervention Guide for mental disorders (mhGAP-IG), could be a cost-effective and valuable programme for addressing the treatment gap among prisoners in LMICs and coming closer to the Sustainable Development Goals declared by the United Nations.

By Gergo Baranyi, PhD Student in Human Geography and Marie Sklodowska-Curie Early Stage Researcher, The University of Edinburgh

What is ‘on the ground’ in a city linked to levels of inequality in life satisfaction

In a European-wide study of 63,554 people from 66 cities in 28 countries, we found links between urban design and levels of inequality in life satisfaction. This is the first study to theorise and examine how the entire urban landscape may affect levels of and inequalities in wellbeing in a large international sample.

Cities with an even distribution of facilities, housing and green space were linked with lower levels of inequality between residents’ life satisfaction levels, suggesting that more equal access to a range of facilities and types of land may help reduce the gap in life satisfaction between the most economically-deprived and most affluent residents of a city.

There was a strong link between higher life satisfaction and living in cities with homes surrounded by natural, green space. However, lower life satisfaction was linked to living in cities that had more wasteland, more space dedicated to housing, and more space in which all the land is concrete or tarmacked.

Implications for policy and planning.

The findings of our study suggest that urban planning has a role to play in addressing inequalities in cities. Our finding that more equal distribution of land cover/use is associated with lower levels of socio-economic inequality in life satisfaction supports the idea that city environments could be equigenic – that is, could create equality.

What people want or need from their city varies moment to moment, day to day, life stage to life stage. If a city is varied enough to offer people what they need, when they need it, it is likely to support a higher quality of life.

Three Generation Out Walking

Why understanding city design is important for population health and well-being?

With the United Nations reporting that more than half the world’s population residing in urban areas and this proportion rising, it is important to understand how well-planned urban environment might improve, and reduce inequalities in, quality of life. Therefore, understanding the influence urban environments can have on all aspects of health and wellbeing is increasingly important. Cities are continuously evolving and there is ample opportunity to ensure these are healthier and happier place to live.

What we did:

We applied theory and methods from landscape ecology to explore associations between cities’ land cover/use, residents’ reported life satisfaction and within-city socio-economic inequalities in life satisfaction. We joined individual-level responses to the European Urban Audit (EUA) Perception Surveys (2012 and 2015) with city-level data from the European Urban Atlas classifying land cover/use into 26 different classes. Our sample included 63,554 people from 66 cities in 28 countries.

The study, ‘Are urban landscapes associated with reported life satisfaction and inequalities in life satisfaction at the city level? A cross-sectional study of 66 European Cities’ is published in Social Science & Medicine (Open Access). The work was funded by The Medical Research Council (MRC) and Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office.

By Rich Mitchell, Natalie Nicholls & Jon Olsen , Neighbourhoods and Communities programme, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.

CRESH seminar – Bombarded by Booze

Title: Bombarded by Booze: Children’s real-time exposure to alcohol marketing using wearable cameras and GPS devices

Presenter: Professor Louise Signal, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand

Description: This presentation highlights innovative New Zealand research with children using wearable cameras and GPS devices to capture the extent and nature of their exposure to alcohol marketing.

When: Thursday 31st January, 11-12

Where: Lister Learning and Teaching Centre – 2.14 – Teaching Studio, 5 Roxburgh Pl, Edinburgh EH8 9SU

New evidence linking availability of tobacco & smoking

The connection between the local availability of tobacco products and smoking behaviour has been underlined in new research from the CRESH team this week. Published in the journal Tobacco Control, we show how moving into an area of Scotland where tobacco products are more readily available can significantly increase the risk of smoking while pregnant. We estimate that a pregnant woman living in an area with the highest tobacco availability is 70% more likely to smoke than when she was living in an area with the lowest availability of tobacco products.

Why is this important? Firstly, smoking during pregnancy is a vital Public Health issue and is recognised as a key priority area for UK health policy. It is harmful for both the mother and the developing fetus and the effects for social and health outcomes can persist into childhood and adulthood. Since smoking is so strongly associated with poverty and deprivation, it also has an important role to play in the persistence of health inequalities across generations.

But there are other reasons why the research is important. Much of what we know, including previous research from CRESH, is based on information from a single point in time. While these studies are crucial in establishing the strength of associations, they are less useful for determining mechanisms. A key question that remains is whether high availability is the cause of smoking behaviour or whether retailers preferentially locate in areas of high demand. Both pathways are plausible but both carry very different conclusions and policy recommendations. Our latest research is able to address this question using information on smoking during pregnancy which is collected routinely as part of Scotland’s hospital maternity records. By looking at multiple pregnancies to the same individual, we were able to relate changes in smoking behaviour between pregnancies to changes in exposure to tobacco retailers from residential moves. This approach provides strong evidence that availability is causally linked to behaviour.

The policy implications are clear. As more and more countries move towards a “Tobacco Endgame” policy this, and other research, highlights how a focus on tackling the local availability of tobacco products will be crucial. In a week where the UK government has suggested that preventing poor health lies with “people choosing to look after themselves better, staying active and stopping smoking” our findings are a timely reminder of the importance of considering the wider set of structural factors that shape our health of which our residential environment is one important component.

Do people actually use the facilities in their home neighbourhood?

This blog explores a key question in neighbourhood and health research: if there is a facility or amenity close to someone’s home, is it OK to assume they use it? Surprisingly, this assumption is at the heart of a lot of health and environment research.

We often have data which tells us where facilities and amenities are, and we tend to make the assumption that proximity means use. So, for example, if we see that some neighbourhoods have more parks or more leisure facilities, we expect the people who live in that neighbourhood use them more. Understanding local amenity and facility use is important because we want to know whether / how these things affect health.

With technological advances in recent years, studies have started to collect precise data which tell us exactly where people go using global position system (GPS) devices. We no longer have to assume, for example, that if there’s a park close to a child’s home, they will visit it. The GPS tracks we collect will tell us if they did or not. That presents an opportunity to test our assumptions.

Do children use facilities they have access to in their home neighbourhood?

Our team is interested in children’s use of facilities in and around their homes and to test whether we need GPS to research this we conducted an analysis of facility availability and facility use for 30 10-year-old children living in Glasgow. We used data from GPS devices worn by the children for eight days. These children were part of our ‘Studying Physical Activity in Children’s Environments across Scotland’ Study (SPACES).

The diagram below shows what we did. Our key finding was that facility availability in the home neighbourhood is not a good indicator of facility use; the children used facilities from across a much wider area in the city, even if they had a facility close to their home.  For example, 18 of the 30 children (60%) had a leisure centre within their ‘neighbourhood’ (which we defined as 800m around their home). Only 3 of the 18 actually visited that facility (as identified by their GPS tracks). Of those 18 children, 8 actually visited a leisure centre outside of their ‘neighbourhood’. We saw the same kind of pattern when exploring availability and visits to playing fields, public parks and libraries

Blog graphic

Are our results similar to other research?

Yes, other studies that used GPS devices have found that children do spend time outside of their immediate home area for specific purposes. For example, a 2017 study by Chambers and colleagues in Wellington, New Zealand analysed leisure time GPS data (before and after school) in 114 children aged 11 to 13 years from 16 schools, and found that 38% of their leisure time was spent outside of the home neighbourhood (using a 750m buffer around the home). Time outside of the home neighbourhood was mostly spent visiting their school, other residential locations, and fast food outlets.

These results, and those from similar studies, show that it is important not to treat what’s in someone’s immediate home neighbourhood as a good measure of what they do, or in epidemiological language ‘what they are exposed to’. We must challenge the idea that residential neighbourhood is an adequate way to capture the socio-environmental factors which contribute to health. Many people, including children, can and do access environments well beyond their immediate home neighbourhood. We think that a much wider geographic area should be considered when we’re asking questions about how environment affects health and we call this the city-wide landscape.

What does this mean for future research?

It’s clear that the ‘traditional’ approach which uses someone’s neighbourhood (often defined by a distance around their home, or an administrative area in which their home sits) to assess their access to facilities or exposure to environments is seriously flawed.

  • Other methodological approaches are required to measure ‘exposure’ to environment;
  • We must move beyond traditional fixed neighbourhood-health relationships (although we can’t ignore them);
  • We should embrace and integrate innovative technology to explore mobility (e.g. GPS and accelerometer).

Of course, even when we’re able to see exactly where people go and what they do, we still need to understand the decisions people make about whether or not to visit or spend time at different places.

By Jon Olsen, Research Associate with the Neighbourhoods and Communities programme, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.

Hard Times: Mental Health under Austerity event

How important for mental health are the changing social, economic and environmental conditions in the places where we live? Our research, funded by ESRC, addresses this question through a new and innovative study of mental health of people living in different parts of Scotland. We are focussing especially on the period since 2007 when economic recession and austerity have impacted to a varying extent across the country. This event will use interactive data visualisations to present our research findings, showing how audience polling techniques allow the participants to select topics of special interest for them, to help determine in ‘real time’ the focus of the results presented. This will be combined with an opportunity for group discussion and exchange of ideas among diverse participants, many of whom will be involved in mental health care and promotion of better mental health. We will be sharing new evidence and discussing the implications for policy and practice in different parts of Scotland. The event is also intended to help shape the future research agenda.

FREE to attend. Registration via Eventbrite. Refreshments provided.

LOCATION

The Melting Pot, 5 Rose Street, Edinburgh, EH2 2PR

Update 21/12/18

We had a really productive day on the 7th of November, thanks to the helpful and encouraging input from all the attendees. Please feel free to download and share the Powerpoint slides. We have collated the information gathered using Mentimeter and transcribed the written notes. The report which features a discussion on how these findings relate to the wider project is now available to download.

 

 

Urban health and neighbourhood effects: PhD studentships at Glasgow Uni

CRESH’s Rich Mitchell is part of the GCRF Funded Centre for Sustainable, Healthy and Learning Cities and Neighbourhoods (SHLC) at the University of Glasgow. The centre is offering 3 new PhD studentships which include a focus on neighbourhood and city effects on health. More details and how to apply can be found below and via the University’s Website: http://bit.ly/SHLCPhD

Closing Date: 17 June 2018

Research Topic

Candidates are required to provide an outline proposal of no more than 1000 words. We are particularly interested in proposals that encompass any of the following topics:

a) The development and operationalisation of indicators/classification/measures of spatial differentiation (including its temporal evolution) of neighbourhoods within SHLC case study cities, and the implications of spatial differentiation for access to public services;

b) The development and operationalisation of indicators/classification/measures for lifelong learning in cities and neighbourhoods in the global south, including links to a range of life wide literacies;

c) Qualitative/ethnographic studies of neighbourhoods in SHLC case study cities paying particular attention to the interaction between urban, health and education challenges

d) Investigations of the impact of informality on social sustainability in neighbourhoods within SHLC case study cities, paying particular attention to the interaction between urban, health and education challenges

e) Understanding the relationships between neighbourhood-level and city-level influences on residents’ health, paying particular attention to variations by health outcome, person and/or SHLC case study city/country.

The award
Both Home/EU and International applicants are eligible to apply. The scholarship is open to +3 (3 years PhD only) commencing in October 2018 and will provide: a stipend at the ESRC rate, 100% tuition fee waiver, and access to the Research Training Support Grant.

How to Apply

All applicants should complete and collate the following documentation then attach to a single email and send to socsci-scholarships@glasgow.ac.uk with the subject line ‘GCRF SHLC Scholarship application‘ by 17 June 2018

  1. Academic Transcript(s) and Degree Certificate(s)

Final or current degree transcripts including grades and degree certificates (and official translations, if needed) – scanned copy in colour of the original documents.

  1. References

2 references on headed paper (academic and/or professional).

At least one reference must be academic, the other can be academic or professional. Your references should be on official headed paper. These should also be signed by the referee.

If your referees would prefer to provide confidential references direct to the University then we can also accept the reference by email, from the referee’s official university or business email account to socsci-scholarships@glasgow.ac.uk clearly labelling the reference e.g. “<applicant name> CoSS Scholarship Reference”

  1. Copy of CV
  2. Research Proposal 

Applicants are required to provide research proposal of not more than 1000 words. It should include:

  • a straightforward, descriptive, and informative title
  • the question that your research will address
  • a justification of why this question is important and worth investigating
  • an assessment of how your own research will engage with recent research on the subject
  • a brief account of the methodology and data sources you will use
  • References to sources cited in the proposal and an indicative wider bibliography (The references and bibliography are in addition to the 1000 words).

For more information please visit the University’s website (http://bit.ly/SHLCPhD) or contact SHLC’s Senior Business Manager Gail Wilson gail.wilson@glasgow.ac.uk

TOBACCO OUTLET DENSITY AND PATHWAYS TO SMOKING AMONG TEENAGERS

Why are adolescents that live in areas with high concentrations of tobacco shops more likely to smoke?

New findings suggest Scottish teenagers living in areas with a high density of shops selling tobacco have greater knowledge about cigarette brands.

Earlier work in Scotland found that adults and adolescents living in areas with high densities of shops selling tobacco were more likely to smoke. Public health researchers have suggested that restrictions on tobacco retail outlet density are a potential ‘new frontier’ in the long-running campaign to achieve a tobacco ‘endgame’. However, the reasons why exposure to greater numbers of tobacco outlets is associated with smoking are unclear and the types of restrictions on retail density that might best support this public health goal are not known.

SALSUS _Q_cover_2A new study by CRESH has explored possible pathways linking tobacco outlet density to smoking among adolescents. Our work used responses from 22,049 13 and 15 year olds to the 2010 Scottish School Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey. Data from the Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register were used to calculate a measure of the density of tobacco outlets around the survey respondents’ homes.

We were interested to know whether adolescents in areas with more tobacco outlets had better knowledge of tobacco products, and so assessed how many cigarette brands they could name. We also looked at whether adolescents in high outlet density areas had more positive attitudes about smoking as it has been suggested that exposure to outlets and the tobacco marketing and purchasing found within them may ‘normalise’ smoking. We examined whether in areas where there are more tobacco outlets it may be easier for adolescents to make underage cigarette purchases. Finally, we considered tobacco price, assessing whether in areas with more tobacco shops, and more retail competition, cigarettes were cheaper. Continue reading TOBACCO OUTLET DENSITY AND PATHWAYS TO SMOKING AMONG TEENAGERS

CRESH are recruiting a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Early Stage Researcher (Health Population and Demography)

Logo

Applications are invited for an Early Stage Researcher position funded by the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network “LONGPOP (Methodologies and Data mining techniques for the analysis of Big Data based on Longitudinal Population and Epidemiological Registers)” within the Horizon 2020 Programme of the European Commission. LONGPOP is a consortium of universities, research institutions and companies located in Spain, Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, United Kingdom, Belgium and Switzerland, The successful applicant will join a network of 14 Early Stage Researchers who are already embedded in the consortium. This is a high-profile position that offers exceptional benefits ideally suited for top graduates.

This position is based in the Centre for Research on Environment Society & Health and Longitudinal Studies Centre Scotland, School of GeoSciences at the University of Edinburgh. You will join a broad, dynamic research team with interests in population health, demography and human geography. You will be expected to work with other investigators of the network, both in Edinburgh and at the other LONGPOP network institutions.

The post is available as soon as possible and is fixed term until 31st January 2020.

Closing date: 22-May-2018

Further details: here and here 

We’re recruiting a systems / agent-based modeller

We have a job going in Glasgow, at the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit. This position is focused on developing and applying complex systems models, including agent based models, to problems in population health. The post holder will work across the Complexity in Health Improvement and the Neighbourhoods and Communities research programme within the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. The programmes are collaborating to understand how place-based interventions might improve health and reduce health inequalities.

The closing date is  21 February 2018. You need to apply via the University of Glasgow’s online system. The job reference is 020096,

The main purpose of this position is to contribute to the programmes’ research using complex system simulation methods. The postholder requires up to date knowledge, understanding and experience of complex systems simulation modelling (including agent based models) and knowledge/experience of computer programming languages or platforms suitable for this kind of work. The application of these methods to understanding and improving public health is relatively novel, but they have been applied in other fields such as ecology, economics and social policy. Experience in applying these methods to health is desirable, but not essential – experience from other fields would be welcome.

Main Duties and Responsibilities

Perform the following activities in conjunction with and under the guidance of the Programme Leaders (PLs).

1. Plan and conduct assigned research into how place and health are linked via complex systems, individually or jointly in accordance with the programmes’ development strategies.

2. Contribute to the programmes’ research in complex system simulation methods (including agent based models) through design, programming and implementation of simulation models in one or more project areas.

3. Document research output including analysis and interpretation of all data, maintaining records and managing databases, drafting technical/progress reports and papers as appropriate.

4. Develop and enhance your research profile and reputation and that of The University of Glasgow, SPHSU, and both the Complexity in Health Improvement and Neighbourhoods and Communities Programmes, including contributing to publications of international quality in high profile/quality refereed journals, enhancing the research impact in terms of economic/societal benefit, and gathering indicators of esteem.

5. Contribute to the presentation of work at international and national conferences, at internal and external seminars, colloquia and workshops to develop and enhance our research profile.

6. Contribute to the organisation, supervision, mentoring and training of less experienced members of the programme teams.

7. Contribute to the identification of potential funding sources and assist in the development of proposals to secure funding from internal and external bodies to support future research.

8. Collaborate with colleagues and participate in team/group meetings/seminars/workshops across SPHSU/Institute of Health and Wellbeing/ University and wider community (e.g academic partners).

9. Perform administrative tasks related to the activities of the research group including budgets/expenditure.

10. Contribute to outreach activities of the University of Glasgow.

11. Keep up to date with current knowledge and recent advances in the field/discipline.

12. Engage in personal, professional and career development to enhance both specialist and transferable skills in accordance with desired career trajectory.

13. Undertake any other duties of equivalent standing as assigned by Directors of cognate Research Institutes and/or PLs.

14. Contribute to the enhancement of the University’s International profile in line with the Strategic Plan, Glasgow 2020 – A Global Vision.

These key tasks are not intended to be exhaustive but simply highlight a number of major tasks which the staff member may be reasonably expected to perform.

Knowledge, Qualifications, Skills and Experience

Knowledge/Qualifications

Essential:
A1. Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework (SCQF) level 10 (Honours degree). May be working towards post-graduate qualification such as a Masters (SCQF level 11) or PhD (SCQF level 12) in a relevant discipline. Or equivalent professional qualifications in relevant academic/research discipline, and experience of personal development in a similar role.
A2. Up to date knowledge, understanding and experience of complex systems simulation (including agent based models).
A3. Knowledge of and experience with computer programming languages or platforms suitable for simulation modelling (these could include NetLogo, Repast, Python, C/C#, Java, etc.)

Desirable:
B1. Knowledge of population health research, ideally including public health improvement, social determinants of health and place-based influences on health.
B2. Knowledge of complex adaptive systems and their properties, including concepts such as emergence and self-organisation.

Skills

Essential:
C1. Demonstrable ability in complex systems modelling.
C2. Research creativity and cross-discipline collaborative ability as appropriate.
C3. Excellent communication skills (oral and written), including public presentations and ability to communicate complex data/concepts clearly and concisely.
C4. Excellent interpersonal skills including team working and a collegiate approach.
C5. Appropriate workload/time/project/budget/people management skills.
C7. Self motivation, initiative and independent thought/working.
C8. Initiative and judgement to resolve problems independently, including demonstrating a flexible and pragmatic approach.

Desirable:
D1. Ability to engage in knowledge transfer with non-academic audiences and public health advocacy organisations.
D2. Ability to use GIS software &/or R to handle spatial data.

Experience

Essential:
E1. Sufficient breadth and/or depth of knowledge in the specialist subject/discipline and of research methods and techniques.
E2. Experience of scientific writing.
E3. Proven ability to deliver quality outputs in a timely and efficient manner.

Desirable:
F1. Experience of working in an academic setting.
F2. Experience using open data or open source software.
F3. Evidence of an emerging track record of publications in a relevant field.

Job Features

Dimensions 
To develop and use complex systems models within an academic environment of the highest national or international quality.
Publish as appropriate to subject specialism within agreed timescales.
Informal support of less experienced members of the programmes’ teams e.g. postgraduate and project students.
Engage in personal, professional and career development to enhance both specialist and transferable skills in accordance with desired career trajectory.

Planning and Organising
Management of time and prioritisation of research, teaching and administrative duties.
Planning, organisation and implementation of research projects on a weekly/monthly basis.
Plan research directions that are within the available budget.
React to varying project needs and deadlines.

Decision Making
Undertake decision making on all aspects of research project/activities.
Support the programme leaders’ in identifying research opportunities
Adjust approaches to meet project outcomes
Identify best journals for publication and meetings/conferences to attend.
Identification of equipment and materials for purchase.

Internal/External Relationships
University colleagues: to exchange information to ensure efficient working and to facilitate cross disciplinary working.
External bodies/collaborators: proactively maintain co-operation and links at all levels to enhance profile and reputation.
Dissemination: Preparation and presentation of reports/results and participation in meetings and conference calls.

Problem Solving
Research including technical and theoretical aspects/problem solving and development of novel ideas
Be aware of project and budgetary issues, equipment lead times.
Assistance of undergraduate/postgraduate students and junior team members with problems relating to research project.

Other
Representation of the University/College/School through presentation at national and international events
Attendance at training events to learn and implement new research technologies.
Prepared to travel to meetings in the UK/Europe and elsewhere as required by the University.

Additional School/RI/College Information

The MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow

The Unit’s aim is to promote human health by the study of social, behavioural, economic and environmental influences on health. We have five objectives:

• to study the multiple interacting processes through which biological, social, behavioural, economic and environmental factors influence physical and mental health over the lifecourse;
• to discover mechanisms which can modify these processes and have the potential to improve population health in a complex world;
• to develop translational interventions which harness these mechanisms to improve public health and reduce social inequalities in health;
• to evaluate interventions and policies in terms of their ability to improve public health and reduce social inequalities in health;
• to influence policy and practice by communicating the results and implications of research to policy, professional and lay audiences.

The Unit receives core funding from the UK Medical Research Council and Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office (CSO). The Unit is part of the Institute of Health and Wellbeing.

The Unit has six research programmes:

• Complexity in health improvement
• Measurement and analysis of socio-economic inequalities in health
• Social relationships and health improvement
• Understanding and improving health within settings and organisations
• Neighbourhoods and Communities
• Informing Healthy Public Policy

Unit staff and students come from a range of social and public health science disciplines including statistics, mathematics, epidemiology, public health medicine, nursing, natural sciences, human sciences, nutrition, sociology, anthropology, economics, psychology, geography, and history. The Unit is improving its impact on the environment through a Green Policy and has joined 10:10.

Neighbourhoods and Communities programme
The Neighbourhoods and Communities programme of research is focused on understanding how to make social and physical environments that are salutogenic and equigenic; that is which improve and equalise public health. We are particularly interested in understanding how different parts of the social and physical landscapes we live in connect together in systems and interact to affect our health. To do this, we are exploring new methods which reflect the fact that people move around within and between neigbourhoods, towns and cities, that urban environments change over time, and that the human and natural worlds are intricately connected.

Complexity in Health Improvement programme
The programme aims to develop and apply research methods for understanding and modelling the multiplicity of interdependent factors that influence population health, and to particularly apply these methods to the development and evaluation of interventions and policies to improve public health and/or reduce health inequalities.More details about the programmes are available at
https://www.gla.ac.uk/researchinstitutes/healthwellbeing/research/mrccsosocialandpublichealthsciencesunit/

Standard Terms & Conditions

Salary will be on the University’s Research and Teaching Grade, level 6, £28,098 – £31,604 per annum.

This post is full time and has funding until 31 March 2020.

New entrants to the University will be required to serve a probationary period of 6 months.

The successful applicant will be eligible to join the Universities’ Superannuation Scheme. Further information regarding the scheme is available from the Superannuation Officer, who is also prepared to advise on questions relating to the transfer of Superannuation benefits.

All research and related activities, including grants, donations, clinical trials, contract research, consultancy and commercialisation are required to be managed through the University’s relevant processes (e.g. contractual and financial), in accordance with the University Court’s policies.

Vacancy ref: 020096, Closing date: 21 February 2018.

It is the University of Glasgow’s mission to foster an inclusive climate, which ensures equality in our working, learning, research and teaching environment.

We strongly endorse the principles of Athena SWAN, including a supportive and flexible working environment, with commitment from all levels of the organisation in promoting gender equity.

The University of Glasgow, charity number SC004401.

More Info…